Wednesday, January 28, 2009

Program Rawatan Demam Cikungunya

1 Feb 2009, saya dipelawa oleh Persatuan Pengamal Sains Perubatan Homeopathy Negeri Johor untuk membantu memberikan rawatan di Dewan Serbaguna Felda Semencu mulai jam 9.00 pagi. InsyaALLah, saya akan hadir disamping membawa peralatan dan ubatan yang perlu bagi memberi peluang para pesakit mengenali lebih rapat perubatan homeopati dan kemampuannya dalam memberikan kesembuhan yang segera dan berkesan.

Sebenarnya, banyak lagi penyakit yang mampu dirawat secara homeopati dan peluang-peluang seperti ini harus diberikan bagi membuka mata masyarakat bahawa adanya satu pilihan rawatan alternatif yang saintifik dan berkesan. Penyakit demam denggi, keracunan makanan dikalangan pelajar dan beberapa penyakit wabak yang lain harus diberi peluang untuk dirawat secara homeopati. 

Saya memetik beberapa informasi mengenai chikungunya.

Chikungunya (in the Makonde language "that which bends up") virus (CHIKV) is an insect-borne virus, of the genus, Alphavirus, that is transmitted to humans by virus-carrying Aedes mosquitoes. There have been recent outbreaks of CHIKV associated with severe morbidity. CHIKV causes an illness with symptoms similar to dengue fever. CHIKV manifests itself with an acute febrile phase of the illness lasts only two to five days, followed by a prolonged arthralgic disease that affects the joints of the extremities. The pain associated with CHIKV infection of the joints persists for weeks or months.

Signs and symptoms

The incubation period of Chikungunya disease is from two to four days. Symptoms of the disease include a fever up to 40 °C (104 °F), a petechial or maculopapular rash of the trunk and occasionally the limbs, and arthralgia or arthritis affecting multiple joints. Other nonspecific symptoms can include headache, conjunctival infection, and slight photophobia. Typically, the fever lasts for two days and then ends abruptly. However, other symptoms, namely joint pain, intense headache, insomnia and an extreme degree of prostration last for a variable period; usually for about 5 to 7 days. Patients have complained of joint pains for much longer time periods depending on their age.


Chikungunya virus is indigenous to tropical Africa and Asia, where it is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected mosquitoes, usually of the genus Aedes. Chikungunya virus belongs to alpha-vus under Toga virdae family.It is an "Arbovirus"(Ar-arthropod,bo-borne). CHIK fever epidemics are sustained by human-mosquito-human transmission. The word "chikungunya" is thought to derive from description in local dialect of the contorted posture of patients afflicted with the severe joint pain associated with this disease.The main virus reservoirs are monkeys, but other species can also be affected, including humans.


Recovery from the disease varies by age. Younger patients recover within 5 to 15 days; middle-aged patients recover in 1 to 2.5 months. Recovery is longer for the elderly. The severity of the disease as well as its duration is less in younger patients and pregnant women. In pregnant women, no untoward effects are noticed after the infection.

Ocular inflammation from Chikungunya may present as iridocyclitis, and have retinal lesions as well.

Pedal oedema (swelling of legs) is observed in many patients, the cause of which remains obscure as it is not related to any cardiovascular, renal or hepatic abnormalities.


Chikungunya virus is an alphavirus closely related to the O'nyong'nyong virus,the Ross River virus in Australia, and the viruses that cause eastern equine encephalitis and western equine encephalitis.

Chikungunya is generally spread through bites from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, but recent research by the Pasteur Institute in Paris has suggested that chikungunya virus strains in the 2005-2006 Reunion Island outbreak incurred a mutation that facilitated transmission by Aedes albopictus (Tiger mosquito).Concurrent studies by arbovirologists at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston Texas confirmed definitively that enhanced chikungunya virus infection of Aedes albopictus was caused by a point mutation in one of the viral envelope genes (E1).Enhanced transmission of chikungunya virus by Aedes albopictus could mean an increased risk for chikungunya outbreaks in other areas where the Asian tiger mosquito is present. A recent epidemic in Italy was likely perpetuated by Aedes albopictus.[20]

In Africa, chikungunya is spread via a sylvatic cycle in which the virus largely resides in other primates in between human outbreaks.


The name is derived from the Makonde word meaning "that which bends up" in reference to the stooped posture developed as a result of the arthritic symptoms of the disease. The disease was first described by Marion Robinson[21] and W.H.R. Lumsden[22] in 1955, following an outbreak in 1952 on the Makonde Plateau, along the border between Mozambique and Tanganyika (the mainland part of modern day Tanzania).

According to the initial 1955 report about the epidemiology of the disease, the term chikungunya is derived from the Makonde root verb kungunyala, meaning to dry up or become contorted. In concurrent research, Robinson glossed the Makonde term more specifically as "that which bends up." Subsequent authors apparently overlooked the references to the Makonde language and assumed that the term derived from Swahili, the lingua franca of the region. The erroneous attribution of the term as a Swahili word has been repeated in numerous print sources. Many other erroneous spellings and forms of the term are in common use including "Chicken guinea", "Chicken gunaya," and "Chickengunya".[citation needed]

Since its discovery in Tanganyika, Africa in 1952, chikungunya virus outbreaks have occurred occasionally in Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia, but recent outbreaks have spread the disease over a wider range.

Use as a biological weapon

Chikungunya was one of more than a dozen agents that the United States researched as potential biological weapons before the nation suspended its biological weapons program.


Sebagai pengenalan, saya ingin menerangkan satu jenis penawar yang diberi nama Eupatorium perfoliatum (Thoroughwort). Penawar ini dikenali sebagai "Bone-set" kerana kemampuannya mengurangkan kesakitan pada anggota kaki dan tangan dan juga otot-otot yang seringkali diidapi oleh pesakit yang diserang demam malaria atau influenza.  Bryonia alba dan Rhus toxicondendron adalah antara penawar pilihan dalam menilai kes ini.

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